Flood Problem In India
The nature of flood problem varies from one river system to another. Two great river
systems are discussed below considering the flood problems in India:
The main problem of flooding in the northeastern region arises from the Brahmaputra river and its tributaries. The river in monsoon season overflows its banks and causes a great damage to life and property both. Several times it has affected Kaziranga wildlife sanctuary where rhinoceros population died due to rising floods. In recent years, the erosion along the banks of the Brahmputra has assumed serious proportions. The rivers also carry considerable amount of silt and have a tendency to change its course.
Ganga River System
In this region the northern tributaries of the Ganga, namely the Rapti, the Sharada,
the Ghaghra and the Gandak cause extensive flooding along their banks. Drainage congestion is confined to the northwestern parts of U.P., Meerut, Mathura and Agra suffers the most. Bihar suffers a considerable amount of damage due to the flooding of the Burhi Gandak, the
Baghirati, the Kamla Balan, the Kosi and the Mahananda. In addition to the crop submergence the area experiences traffic dislocation also. In the Bengal region Baghirati, the Ajoy and the Damodar cause extensive flooding. Here the tidal effect of Bay of Bengal also plays a role in flooding. In Delhi and Haryana it is the Yamuna, the biggest tributary of the Ganga, which causes a marginal amount of flooding. Most of these flooding regions suffer from inadequate channel capacity as well as regulation of river water flow in these channels.