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Biology Environmental Science

Categories of Conservation

In this article we will discuss Categories of Conservation

Categories of Conservation

There are two categories of conservation as under:

(1) In Situ Conservation
This is the conservation of genetic resources through their maintenanced within natural
or even human-made ecosystems in which they occur. It includes a system of protected areas of different categories, managed with different objectives to bring benefit to the society. For example National parks, Sociometries, Nature Reserves, Natural Monuments, Cultural Landscapes, Biosphere Reserve etc. Evidently in situ conservation is not practicable for domesticates.

(2) Ex Situ Conservation
This is conservation outside habitats by perpetuating sample population in genetic
resource centers, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections etc. or in the form of gene pools and gamete storage for fish; germplasm banks for seeds, pollen, semen, ova, cells etc. Plants are more readily maintained than animals. In this kind of conservation vital role is played by seed banks, botanical gardens, pollen storage, tissue culture and genetic engineering. Under Ministries of Environment and Forests, Agriculture, and Science and Technology a large number of institutions are involved in conservation and utilization of natural resources. Between them, they are dealing with in situ conservation including sphere reserves, national parks. Wildlife sanctuaries and ex situ conservation such as field gene banks, seed and other banks, and utilization involving gene and drug prospecting respectively.

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