In an ecosystem, there exist various relationships between species. The relationship may be as under:
Two species may have any of the following kind of effects:
(i) They may have a negative effect upon one another (competition).
(ii) They may have a neutral effect (neutralism).
(iii) They may have beneficial effect (protoco-operation and mutualism).
(2) Other kinds of Relationship
The species may aggregate, or separate, or show a random relationship to one another.